Jones Calculus is a mathematical technique for describing the polarization state of light and calculating the evolution of the polarization state as light passes through optical devices. Any state of polarization can be described by a two-element Jones vector, and the linear operation of any optical device can be fully described by a 2×2 Jones matrix. A system of multiple devices can be straightforwardly modeled by multiplying the component Jones matrices to yield a single system Jones matrix.
The interaction of polarized light with matter can lead to a host of effects, some of which are very useful for certain applications. However, in many other applications, polarization effects can degrade or limit the performance of an optical system.
A fundamental property of single-mode optical fiber and components, Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) is a broadening of the input pulse due to a phase delay between input polarization states.
Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) enables detection from hundreds to thousands of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors along a single fiber. The OFDR technique makes practical the collection of data from a dense array of spatially distributed sensors that is unrealistic with other techniques currently available.
Fiber fingerprinting can be accomplished due to imperfections in optical fiber. Each minute piece of fiber reflects back light, which is known as Rayleigh backscatter.